Queen Juliana

1909-2004 1948-1980

Juliana’s birth in 1909 finally ensured that the Netherlands had an heir apparent. She remained first in line to the throne, as Wilhelmina and Hendrik (Henry) had no son. Her mother Wilhelmina had had a lonely childhood, and she was therefore determined that Juliana would have as normal an upbringing as possible. Though Juliana was tutored at home in the palace, she was taught in a small class of girls who became her friends.

Juliana was in no hurry to find a husband. Several names were mentioned, but at the Olympic Games in Germany in 1936 she met Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. The couple married a year later.

In 1940 the royal family were forced to flee the Netherlands after the German army invaded. Juliana and her daughters Beatrix and Irene lived in Canada during the Second World War. Wilhelmina and Bernhard stayed behind in London. Juliana and Bernhard’s daughter Margriet was born in Canada. Their fourth daughter Christina was born after the war. Juliana succeeded her mother as queen in 1948.